What is the Arduino Uno?
Arduino Uno is a microcontroller board based on the ATmega328P (datasheet). It has 14 digital input/output pins (of which 6 can be used as PWM outputs), 6 analog inputs, a 16 MHz quartz crystal, a USB connection, a power jack, an ICSP header and a reset button. It contains everything needed to support the microcontroller; simply connect it to a computer with a USB cable or power it with an AC-to-DC adapter or battery to get started. You can tinker with your UNO without worrying too much about doing something wrong. The worst case scenario is that you would have to replace the chip and start again :)
Arduino Uno Specification
- Microcontroller: ATmega328P
- Operating Voltage: 5V
- Input Voltage (recommended): 7-12V
- Inout Voltage (limit): 6-20V
- Digital I/O Pins: 14 (of which 6 provide PWM output)
- PWM Digital I/O Pins: 6
- Analog Input Pins: 6
- DC Current per I/O Pin: 20 mA
- DC current for 3.3V Pin: 50 mA
- Flash Memory: 32 KB (ATmega328P) of which 0.5 KB used by bootloader
- SRAM: 2 KB (ATmega328P)
- EEPROM: 1 KB (ATmega328P)
- Clock Speed: 16 MHz
- LED_BUILTIN: 13
- Length: 68.6 mm
- Width: 58.4 mm
- Weight: 25 g
Powering up the Arduino Uno
The Arduino Uno board can be powered via a USB connection or with an external power supply. The power source is selected automatically. External (non-USB) power can come either from an AC-to-DC adapter (wall-wart) or battery. The adapter can be connected by plugging a 2.1mm center-positive plug into the board's power jack. Leads from a battery can be inserted in the GND and Vin pin headers of the POWER connector. The board can operate on an external supply from 6 to 20 volts. If supplied with less than 7V, however, the 5V pin may supply less than five volts and the board may become unstable. If using more than 12V, the voltage regulator may overheat and damage the board. The recommended range is 7 to 12 volts.
The power pins are as follows:
- Vin. The input voltage to the Arduino/Genuino board when it's using an external power source (as opposed to 5 volts from the USB connection or other regulated power sources). You can supply voltage through this pin, or, if supplying voltage via the power jack, access it through this pin.
- 5V.This pin outputs a regulated 5V from the regulator on the board. The board can be supplied with power either from the DC power jack (7 - 12V), the USB connector (5V), or the VIN pin of the board (7-12V). Supplying voltage via the 5V or 3.3V pins bypasses the regulator, and can damage your board. We don't advise it.
- 3V3. A 3.3 volt supply generated by the on-board regulator. The maximum current draw is 50 mA.
- GND. Ground pins.
- IOREF. This pin on the Arduino/Genuino board provides the voltage reference with which the microcontroller operates. A properly configured shield can read the IOREF pin voltage and select the appropriate power source or enable voltage translators on the outputs to work with the 5V or 3.3V.